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When we create a new product or service for customers so that they can achieve certain outcomes in a superior way through its use, it is called product or service innovation. For example, the mobile phone was a product innovation when introduced, as customers were now able to communicate remotely from places with no access to land telephone lines. Process innovation involves creating new value in many behind-the-scenes process levels. For example, a number of years ago, FedEx created a system that allows customers to track the location of their packages during transit and delivery.

Although customers only saw the tracking information on the Internet and the scanning operations performed by the driver, most of the innovation occurred in the enabling business processes. This created value for FedEx as well as the customers. A business model innovation involves delivering superior value by changing the way business is done. Wal-Mart is well known for its business model innovation in logistics and supply chain area. The iTunes business model enabled various music providers and users to come together and share music that created better value for the users, providers, and Apple.

The ideation phase is where we generate a new idea for product, process, or business model innovation. The ideation happens when an unmet customer need and a certain capability or technology meet. Bringing the idea alive in the form of a product or service , process, or business model is the function of design. Therefore, we can say that design is the bridge between the ideation process and fulfillment process.

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This can be explained with the help of value chain processes depicted in Figure 2. This figure shows how a product or service is created and delivered to customers. An idea is first generated against an unmet need in the marketplace. The idea is possible because we have a certain technology or capability that will enable the creation and delivery of the idea into a feasible product.

The idea is perceived as an interplay of various dynamics in the marketplace, including competitor offerings, and customer needs as well as technology and other capabilities. The idea is further developed as a design of the product to be offered to the customer. The design is translated into a solution that is ready for customers via the production and supply processes. Figure 2. This promise is regarding the product or service we will deliver to the customer. Once the customer buys the promise, we now will deliver the product or services through certain delivery and support processes.

The value chain demonstrates two major activities. The first activity is regarding the creation of a new and superior promise for the customer. This is achieved through the ideation and design process. The second activity is regarding the fulfillment of the promise through production and delivery processes. The design plays a key role as the bridge between the identification of the new promise and flawless delivery of that promise. If the design is not right, we may not be able to deliver flawlessly on the promise.

We may have to rework or improve the design in order to deliver better on our promise. On one hand, we must be adept at delivering on the promises we made to our customers in order to be successful in the short term and generate profits. This includes excelling and improving at all the processes associated with sales, supply, production, delivery, and support processes.

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On the other hand, we must be successful at identifying new paradigms and creating newer and better promises. Many times, while the first set of activities are focused at improving an existing promise, the second set of activities are focused on creating a newer promise that would replace the first promise. Innovation and Design 21 In addition, the set of structures, culture, and systems that enable the first set of activities are at odds with the second set of activities.

This creates the tension between the two sets of activities. So the key challenge for companies is to figure out how to create a culture, system, and process to become ambidextrous. In exploring this further, one recognizes that the companies that have been successful in delivering flawlessly on their promises while identifying and creating new and better promises have figured out a way to embrace and thrive in the paradox of structure — it is enabling and limiting at the same time. Companies who are adept at doing thing better or exploitation have taken advantage of the enabling aspects of structure.

They have created structures and systems that measure, manage, and improve their existing systems, processes, and paradigms. For example, Lean Six Sigma principles place a heavy emphasis on defining, measuring, and analyzing the existing system in order to make improvements or perfect the system. Organizations with an innovative climate have recognized the limiting nature of structures and hence embraced a culture and systems that enable change, risk taking, and challenging existing rules or conventional wisdom.

They have adopted a diverse cognitive climate of style, level, and organizational structure that enables the paradox. While there are many, we have identified several below based on our experience. The adaptive side of the organization embraces efficiency. Doing it right the first time is important for this side.

Everything is done methodically, and mastering the details is a very important aspect of this culture. On one hand, this approach is very much needed for flawless delivery of the promise. On the other hand, the innovative side of the culture is too eager to change, take risks, and learn fast from failures. This side of the culture has low regard for methodology, structures, and processes. They prefer to find a new system rather than perfect an existing system.

This is, in essence, the management of style diversity. Portfolio The organization maintains a balanced portfolio ranging from incremental improvements to breakthrough innovations. The adaptive side of the house wants more projects to perfect existing systems and paradigms. These projects are focused on improving the flawless delivery of the promises made to customers. The innovative side of the house wants to develop or place bets on new and potential promises.

The ambidextrous organization ensures that the portfolio is dynamically optimized against current and future customer, market, and organizational demands. Metrics Ambidextrous organizations must maintain two broad sets of metrics in order to meet the objectives of preservation and evolution. The first set of metrics is aimed at measuring the Innovation and Design 23 degree to which we are delivering flawlessly on the promises.

Examples of these metrics include profitability; customer satisfaction measures relating to cost, quality and delivery; process performance metrics relating to quality, cycle time, and process capabilities; system performance levels; and people performance measures. The second set of metrics relates to growth objectives and hence focuses on revenue growth, new market penetration, and innovation.

These objectives are achieved through identifying unmet customer outcomes, or jobs to be done in unoccupied market spaces. Examples of these metrics include revenue growth from new markets and new products or services; product and service development cycle time; vitality index; quality and strength of innovation pipeline; and percentage of sales from radical innovations introduced by the firm within the last three years.

Often, these two broad sets of metrics are at odds with each other. The first set of metrics often penalizes not doing things right the first time, taking risks, or deviating from the set path. It promotes short-term success. The second set of metrics encourages risk taking, tolerates high failure rates, and rewards long-term success.

Ambidextrous organizations know how to incorporate the appropriate metrics for the relevant people, group, and time. It is a balancing act and involves embracing the diversity of objectives and styles. Process, Methods, Techniques, and Tools The adaptive side of the organization thrives on achieving objectives systematically and methodically, following certain processes and structures. These set of structures and processes enable efficiency and limit waste and defects.

The basic tenets of Lean Six Sigma approach are founded on this premise. But repeatability, scalability, and systematization across the enterprise suffer when innovation is not guided by structure and processes. Many organizations have found success in the short term from accidental discoveries or inventions from the ingenuity of a single gifted individual or a small cadre of geniuses. However, this approach is not sustainable in the long term. For example, recently Wall Street Journal reported on the fall of Motorola from too much dependence on one innovation — the Razor mobile phone.

Organizations that are successful innovators in the long term utilize flexible structures, processes and systems that enable exploration, risk taking, and quest for new paradigms. Just as Lean Six Sigma techniques and tools enable searching inside a paradigm to achieve perfection, there are innovation techniques and tools that enable exploration outside the paradigm in a systematic way.

Simultaneous adoption of preservation and evolution requires the coexistence of adaptive and innovative structures and processes within the organization. Although the operations group within the company might rightly place emphasis on using Lean Six Sigma and the process management approach to reduce variation and eliminate defects, it must also look for opportunities for process innovation to leapfrog the process capabilities, especially where the process has achieved its entitlement.

In a similar way, product and service innovation approach can be made more rigorous by borrowing the discipline from adaptive processes and structures.

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People An organization wanting to be successful in both preservation and evolution dimensions over a long period of time must attract, retain, and manage a work force that is diverse in cognitive style Innovation and Design 25 and level. It has been shown that humans are born with a preferred problem-solving style that is stable over a long period of time.

This preferred style tends to be more adaptive or more innovative on a bipolar scale. More adaptive people prefer to solve problems within the paradigm in tried and proven ways. They enjoy perfecting the system. More innovative people are eager to see the problem from unexpected and tangential angles. They are ready to question the assumptions and beliefs and have less regard for rule or group conformity.

In simple terms, the more adaptive are suitable for most of the preservation activities, while the more innovative prefer to work with activities linked to evolution. In reality, complex problems that companies undertake are solved widely and well by the collaboration of adaptors and innovators. However, adaptors and innovators have trouble communicating, working together, and trusting each other. Leadership of ambidextrous organizations must figure out how to manage the cognitive diversity of style and level needed for the success of the organization.

An additional challenge lays in the difference in which employees are motivated and rewarded for preservation and evolution. Extrinsic rewards are common ways to reward short-term actions that result in flawless execution of current agenda. These types of motivation do not work well for rewarding long-term actions resulting in creation of new and better promises for the customers. Organizational Structure and Alignment Every company must create work groups and organizational structures that align well to its short-term mission and long-term strategies.

For an ambidextrous organization, this means the parts of the organization responsible for delivering on the current promises must be lean, efficient, and agile in order to execute flawlessly on the promises to its customers. This part of 26 Driving Growth through Innovation the organization has well-defined, sustaining activities against its short-term priorities.

These are further grouped into planned and incremental activities to achieve the cost, quality, and delivery objectives. By contrast the parts of the organization responsible for achieving evolutionary objectives must have flexible systems and structures that enable successful exploration, risk taking, and entrepreneurial work.

This group works well with fewer hierarchies and loose structures with freedom from rigid constraints.

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The motivation and rewards systems are aimed at optimizing against growth objectives and creating new market spaces in unoccupied territories. It is the responsibility of the senior leadership to orchestrate the dynamic separation and integration of the teams responsible for preservation and evolution. WL Gore, a privately held company, is well known for its growth and innovation. Its culture and organizational structure for cultivating innovation is well worth examining. At Gore, there is hardly any hierarchy and very few ranks or titles. The structure promotes direct, unfiltered communications — anyone can speak to anyone else in the company.

To make this approach practical, teams are organized into small groups so that members can get to know each other and know what everyone else is working on. At Gore, everyone is your boss and no one is your boss. It has a culture where employees feel free to pursue their own ideas, communicate with one another, and collaborate on their own free will and motivation. Customer and Market Orientation Companies focused on preservation know their customer expectations regarding their products or services.

This enables them to deliver flawlessly on their promises. The customer Innovation and Design 27 expectations about the products or services fall into two categories — performance expectations and perception expectations. Performance expectations are objective, unambiguous, and measurable expectations regarding the products or services. Perception expectations are subjective, ambiguous, and difficult to measure. However, both expectations are important to the customer.

It is important to note that these expectations change over time, depending on the market dynamics and competitive pressures. Therefore, in order to deliver flawlessly on promises, every company must continually master the details of performance and perception expectations from customers regarding the products or services the promise. Customers have a third kind of expectation called outcome expectations.

These are the reasons that customers are using the product or service. These expectations are related to jobs to be done. Identifying and measuring these jobs to be done in unoccupied market space and aligning or developing new solutions for it is the key to successful innovation. Companies that are adept at innovation are masters of market insight and new paradigm exploration.

Therefore, to be adept at preservation and evolution simultaneously, companies must master the details of all three types of expectations — performance, perception, and outcome expectations. This enables ambidextrous organizations to continually deliver on the promises to ever-changing customer expectations. Many of the products that we use today did not exist three or five years ago. It has done this by mastering the unmet customer outcomes jobs to be done , inventing new promises, and delivering flawlessly on the new promises. Leadership While certain parts of the organization focus on sustaining activities with short-term objectives, others are busy identifying and exploring a new set of activities for evolutionary objectives.

Company leadership has a crucial role to play in managing and responding to the different needs of these organizations. While one set of activities are aimed at perfecting existing systems, processes, products, and services, others may be cannibalizing these products or services in favor of better ones.

Therefore, it is the responsibility of the ambidextrous leadership to keep the integrity of the two sets of activities and organization while leveraging, sharing, and learning from each other. The leadership must empower, motivate, and reward teams involved in activities that require styles that are contrary to theirs adaption versus innovation. Such leaders who can make difficult and objective decisions while working with team members unlike them are rare but essential for managing the paradox of preservation and evolution. This type of organization must embrace the paradox of preservation and evolution simultaneously.

The management of such an organization involves successfully integrating and separating cultures, processes, systems, and structures that operate at opposing levels. Chapter 3 Process for Systematic Innovation In the previous chapter, we discussed the general idea of simultaneously pursuing preservation and evolution — flawlessly delivering on the promises while continually identifying newer and better promises and selectively abandoning the past.

In this chapter, we take a closer look at the aspect of identifying and creating newer and better promises. As discussed in the last chapter, market data reveal that staying on the expected growth curve and returning above-average shareholder returns on the long term have become a very difficult task for corporations. In recent times, this rate has begun to reach doubledigit percentages. Management of innovation and growth processes has generated a sense of high risk and unpredictability for the managers responsible for delivering financial results to shareholders.

The variables impacting innovation and growth processes are only beginning to be understood. Many a times, we hear of innovation as a result of happy accidents. However, if innovation is to become systematic, scalable, and repeatable across the corporation, then we must understand, manage, and leverage the underlying processes that enable innovation.

These companies also vary in the required degree of innovation, from incremental to significant to breakthrough levels. See Figure 3. An IBM survey of global CEOs in revealed that although new products and services remain a priority, companies are placing more emphasis on using innovative business models to differentiate themselves from the competition IBM Global Business Services, Organizations that execute innovation projects in this way almost always Balanced Innovation Portfolio 31 Figure 3.

For example, Apple has experienced tremendous success with the iPod, a product innovation. However, the success of the iPod is largely due to the introduction of iTunes, a business model innovation. The mix, timing, and quantity of portfolio is a function of many factors directed by business strategy. These factors include revenue growth gap, life cycle of existing products and services, fleeting expectations of customers, moves from competitors and availability of new technology, and other capabilities.

For example, a consumer electronics company reviewed its revenue growth projection for the next three years. It soon realized that its existing products and services would be expected to produce only 80 percent of the projected growth in revenue for the next three years. As indicated from the previous example, the timing of portfolio identification must take into account the product or service development cycle time. Development of many ideas often requires the development of certain technology or capability.

This can be achieved by developing the capability internally, or licensing it through alliances or joint ventures. But this takes time and, hence, must be orchestrated with the right timing. Companies can identify and manage their own balanced innovation project portfolio by using a set of growth and innovation opportunity assessment techniques. In addition to project prioritization and scope, these tools help organizations identify unarticulated, latent, and underserved customer expectations that might indicate an unoccupied market space — and a potential direction for growth.

There are at least three factors that we must take into consideration in this context: 1. Motivation of the team and individuals 2. Cognitive level of the team 3. Cognitive style of the individual Effective Teams for Collaboration 33 Motivation can be influenced by positive and negative reinforcements, as well as personal values and beliefs. Therefore it is important to install an appropriate reward system for innovation teams which will maximize the team motivation.

The results of innovation can often be measured only on a long-term basis, and success of innovation is often tied to risk taking and managing uncertainties. Therefore many companies find that the appropriate reward system for encouraging innovation are either intrinsic in nature or provide long-term incentives. The cognitive level of the team involves both the manifest cognitive level and potential cognitive capacity of the team members.

The manifest cognitive level is correlated to the knowledge and skill needed to solve the innovation and design problems at hand. The potential cognitive capacity refers to the intellectual capacity that is genetically inherited. This, for example, is measured using means such as IQ. Fortunately, for solving most problems that corporations face today what is more important is the manifest cognitive level. In addition, another poorly understood factor impacts the performance of teams.

This factor is called cognitive style of the individual. Unlike manifest level and motivation, cognitive style is a stable characteristic that does not change with age and is considered to be genetically inherited. Cognitive style refers to the modality or way in which individuals solve problems, make decisions, and are creative.

People with different styles interact in predictive ways with others. Knowing this and managing it can enhance team performance. Cognitive style is arranged across a continuum on a bipolar scale, ranging from highly adaptive to highly innovative. The more adaptive individuals are concerned with resolving residual problems created by the current paradigm. Other things being equal, they tend to produce fewer ideas that are more manageable, relevant, sound, and safe for immediate use.

They are 34 Process for Systematic Innovation seen as sound, conforming, safe, and dependable. They expect high success rate from ideas generated. The more innovative, by contrast, search for problems and alternative solutions cutting across current paradigms. They approach problems from unsuspecting angles in a tangential manner. They produce many ideas, seen as exciting, blue sky, or new dawn. Many depict them as unsound, impractical, and shocking. They tolerate high failure rates. In the context of methodology in problem solving, the more adaptive approach problems in a precise, reliable, methodological manner.

They are, in general, very thorough and pay lots of attention to detail. They welcome change as an improver. They seek solutions to problems in tried and understood ways, with a maximum of stability and continuity. The more innovative approach problems from unsuspected angles, appear undisciplined, and think tangentially. They welcome change as a mold breaker. They enjoy manipulating the problem, querying its basic assumptions. When it comes to the management of structure, the more adaptive want to maintain continuity, stability, group cohesion, and prudent with authority. They solve problems by use of rule.

They are cautious when challenging rules and only do so when they have strong support. They are an authority within given structures. The more innovative, by contrast, are likely to be a catalyst to settled groups and consensual views, and to be radical. They prefer to alter rules to solve problem. They have no problem in challenging rules, with little concern for past customs. They tend to take control in unstructured situations.

Organizations need diverse cognitive styles to solve large complex problems. However, diversity of style can create tension and cause challenges in communications, trust, decision making, and ability to work together. Effective collaboration is based on the successful management of cognitive diversity. It is important Process for Executing Innovation Projects 35 to know that each style has advantages and disadvantages in task resolution. An advantage in one situation is a disadvantage in another. Diversity is an advantage for task resolution, but a problem for team management. Cognitive style that is stable differs from cognitive behavior, which is flexible.

I prefer to behave in my preferred style. I can and do behave out of my preferred style, and this is called coping behavior. But coping requires extra energy, and extensive coping behavior may cause stress. An effective manager is adept at matching the style of team members with the type of problem at hand. A great leader will provide an environment where minimum coping is necessary and will receive greatest amount of coping from associates in times of crisis.

As already discussed, assembling the right team that is most suitable for the innovation problem at hand requires optimizing against motivation, cognitive level, and cognitive style of the associates. Toward this end, companies can utilize a set of assessments, inventories, and management approaches to assemble effective and collaborative teams for specific growth projects. This means making it systematic using a consistent process that is applied by all teams as DMAIC is applied by Six Sigma teams, for example.

The process must also be robust enough to accommodate multiple innovation pathways; while some growth projects require thinking outside of the box, others require more structure within existing paradigms. The end-to-end process ranges from identifying certain customer needs to generating ideas to developing and demonstrating the solution. Although most of the process models embody similar concepts, the contributions from Wallas and Guilford are worth mentioning. Graham Wallas proposed a four-stage process: 1. Preparation — defining the problem and exploring the scope and boundaries of the problem 2.

Incubation — internalizing the problem into the unconscious mind in preparation for idea generation 3. Illumination — generating creative ideas, bringing into the consciousness 4. Verification — verifying, elaborating, and applying the idea J. Guilford suggested the distinction between convergent and divergent production commonly referred to as convergent and divergent thinking in generation and refinement of novelty. Divergent thinking involves searching for new paradigms that provide multiple solutions and ideas for a problem.

Convergent thinking refers to searching inside the paradigm for refinement and narrowing the solution space. The end-to-end innovation and design process involves multiple steps of convergent and divergent phases. The front end of the process involves identifying opportunity for innovation and idea generation. The back end involves developing the idea and bringing it into reality. Design thinking is the back-end process, which is the focus of major portion of this book. It is common, especially among engineering, manufacturing and high-technology companies to separate the innovation activities from the design and development activities.

For example, an airplane manufacturer might generate many new ideas Process for Executing Innovation Projects 37 for aircraft wings, select a few of them, design and test the prototype to demonstrate the concept. Once the concept is sufficiently validated, tested and proven, the company might incorporate the new design of the wing into a new aircraft under development.

Design for Lean Six Sigma - A Holistic Approach to Design and Innovation (Hardcover)

This approach enables minimizing operational risks. A convenient and efficient way to execute the innovation process involving idea generation and design is to follow a process called D4 methodology, adapted from Wallace The phases of D4 processes are define, discover, develop and demonstrate.

During define phase, our focus would be to identify the job to be done and associated unmet outcomes. This forms the basis of the scope of the innovation project. The objective of the discover phase is to explore various paradigms that will satisfy the unmet outcome expectations for customer and provider. Many ideas generated during the discover phase are narrowed down further in the develop phase. The focus of develop phase is to design the system based on the idea we selected.

The design is converted into a prototype or pilot during the demonstrate phase. Much information is gathered during this phase to further refine the design. Similar to the innovation process, the design and development process can also be broken down further into many phases. Although many models exist, one that is popular involves define, measure, analyze, design and verify DMADV phases. The define phase of the design and development process enables us to define and scope the project with clear objectives.

Performance and perception expectations from customers regarding the solution are gathered, budget planned, resources allocated and project milestones defined. The focus of measure phase is collect necessary data needed for design activities. Analysis and design phase involves data analysis, concept refinement and selection as well detailed design. During verify phase, we 38 Process for Systematic Innovation will demonstrate the success of the design through piloting and prototyping. We will explore this model in greater detail in the forthcoming chapters. D4 practitioners must also understand how to apply a variety of tools and techniques that enable success in each project phase.

For example, the main objective of the define phase is to identify unmet customer expectations. Techniques such as ethnography, archetype research, and heuristic redefinition all help capture the unarticulated needs of customers. The process features tools designed to generate new innovative ideas you can use to meet the unmet needs of your customers.

These tools range from random entry techniques to provocation and movement techniques to technical and physical contradictions. The most promising ideas generated in the discover phase are further investigated during the develop phase using techniques and tools that enable the analysis of data and the subsequent design process. Techniques such as axiomatic design, function structure, conjoint analysis, design of experiments and lean design enable smooth execution through this phase.

Finally, successful solutions are implemented in the demonstrate phase using techniques and tools such as piloting, rapid prototyping and mistake proofing.

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The DMADV process described earlier also has a set of techniques and tools that support the efficient execution of the design project. The commonly used techniques and tools are shown in Figure 5.

During define and measure phases, techniques such as ethnography, focus groups, surveys, and interview enable us to gather performance and perception expectations from customer. Climate for Innovation 39 Measurement system analysis is used to ensure that the data collected is valid, reliable and repeatable. Other techniques such as net present value NPV , internal rate of return IRR , work-break-down structure, Gantt Charts, In-out scope and multi-generational plans allow us to manage the project and minimize risk.

The key activities of analyze phase is to develop functional requirements, generate concepts, resolve design conflicts and assess risk. Axiomatic design, TRIZ, design scorecard, design failure modes and effects analysis, and Pugh selection matrix are examples of technique that enable the activities during analyze phase.

System, sub-system and component level design are completed during design phase of the project. In addition to the many tools used during the analyze phase, other tools such as simulation tools, conjoint analysis, reliability testing, mistake proofing, modular designs and design of experiments are used in this phase. Success is demonstrated during the verify phase with the help of piloting, prototyping and feedback data. Many DMAIC techniques such as process and value stream maps, takt time, control charts, measurement system analysis, process capability and standard work are commonly used during this phase.

The feedback data is incorporated to improve the design and launch processes. Such a climate enables people to learn from their mistakes instead of being punished for them. It also supports quicker execution of ideas and a more agile organizational structure, all of which minimize exposure from innovation risk. This type of a climate is necessary to deliver on the promises made to customer and perfect our offering. The focus of our attention in this case is to do things efficiently.

However, there are some opportunities for experimentation and process innovation. The design and development activities serve as the bridge between innovation and manufacturing or service delivery processes. While a great deal of experimentation and risk taking are necessary during design and development, it is also important to get things done efficiently to manage the project risks and milestones. On one hand we need to promote entrepreneurship, risk taking and experimentation that enable the organization to identify new opportunities leading to newer and better promises to the customers.

On the other hand we need certainty, efficiency, variation reduction, waste elimination and minimization of risk to flawlessly deliver on our promises. It is in this context that we need systems and structures that enable simultaneous management of doing things efficiently and doing things better.

Organization structure, reward and recognition systems, team collaboration approaches, and metrics are some of the key elements that need to be taken into consideration while designing an appropriate governance system. Chapter 4 Lean Six Sigma Essentials Corporations around the world attest to the benefits of implementing Lean Six Sigma strategy as demonstrated through its impact in financial savings and customer satisfaction.

Lean and Six Sigma philosophy had separate origins. While Six Sigma was started as an approach to reduce operational variation and defects, lean thinking enabled elimination of waste and reduction of cycle time. As they work hand in hand, an organization enjoys their combined benefit on the top and bottom line. As an integrated strategy, Lean Six Sigma has now become a metaphor for a business excellence system that enables the breakthrough improvement in every part of the organization through process enablement, cost reduction, and increased profits.

What is becoming increasingly evident is that Lean Six Sigma is also a multifaceted business management system for achieving and sustaining innovation and revenue growth. Although Lean Six Sigma originated as a system for improvement purposes, the fundamental tenets and principles behind it can be applied in a proactive manner. These principles can be applied in a proactive manner to prevent defects and waste, while minimizing the impact of variation and enabling process speed.

This is done in the context of designing and developing processes, products, and systems. However, if you picked up a copy of Miscellanea Analytica London: by the French mathematician Abraham De Moivre, you would find the roots of a revolutionary management system based on the theory of probability.

One such contribution came from Walter Shewhart, when he showed that three sigma distance from the mean is the point where processes require correction. Many process capability measurement standards such as Cp, Cpk, and ppm parts per million defects were later added. Motorola first employed Six Sigma for quality improvement and to gain competitive advantage for its electronic products. Multiple billions of dollars have been saved through the implementation of Six Sigma projects.

Six Sigma was first developed as a statistically based technique to define, measure, analyze, improve, and control DMAIC manufacturing processes. To this end, its ultimate performance target is virtually defect-free processes and products six sigma being the measure of 3. With a hands-on approach and expertise, we create tangible results that last: we are implementation-oriented. Working closely together with your employees, we create an on the job learning setting. Key to a successful product life cycle strategy is: clear goals, mandate, timeboxing, dedicated team, proven tools and methods, and quick market validation.

Get out of the vicious cycle of poor product quality, delays in go-to-market, and increased costs. June 14, Teardowns with Design for Excellence. March 18, Spider Mapping — a powerful tool. April 2, Design for Excellence in all product life cycles. More articles. Broad set of skills enhancing Design for Excellence From our perspective, Design for Excellence DfX goes beyond the traditional scope of cost reduction by applying Design for Manufacturing and Design for Assembly.

How is Design for Excellence performed? What are the 3 key benefits of our way-of-working? Secure savings and create value potential Leave no stone unturned Apply a broad set of competencies Read more. Simon Minderhoud Diagnosing innovation, increasing innovation effectiveness, speeding up innovation Send email.

Connect on LinkedIn. Iason Onassis Roadmapping, portfolio management, new business models, open innovation Send email. Geert Vandaele Business re-engineering, program management, transformation management Send email. Laurens Broekhof Business re-engineering, program management, transformation management Send email. Mike Schavemaker Innovation transformation, open innovation, business model innovation at scale Send email. The evolution of world class Design for Excellence. How it all started and resulted in DfX The journey began in the s. Design for Excellence The next step was to get multi-functional teams to look at the current products to reduce costs and increase value.

Leaving no stone unturned The objective of a DfX project is to unlock product cost reductions, by looking into the way a company designs, makes and delivers products and solutions, challenging all aspects of the value chain, leaving no stone unturned. These competencies include: Ideation — a structured idea generation approach, which is one of the most important elements of Design for Excellence. Product architectures — we help to create a sustainable advantage for future products by applying our competence on creating product architectures, where we relate product features with market needs, manufacturing capabilities and supply chain options.

Lead innovation — by deploying Lean principles we help our customers to see and remove waste and to establish a culture of continuous improvement, needed for a sustainable process of introducing new products to the market in an effective way. By applying open innovation approaches you can benefit from these ideas. Design for Six Sigma — this is a proven practice to structure your product development using for example critical to quality parameters, and to rigorously reduce variation in products and processes.

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