Ffrench Blake. Admirals of the British Navy. Francis Dodd. War in the Mediterranean. Bernard Ireland. Simon Winchester. Days to Remember. John Buchan. Rob Mundle. El Alamein. John Sadler. Khaki Jack. Tears in the Darkness. Michael Norman.
My War at Sea — Heathcoat S. Flying the Knife Edge. Matt McLaughlin. Desert Boys. Peter Rees. Admiral Sir A. Berkeley Milne. Throwim Way Leg. Tim Flannery. Gallipoli Philip Haythornthwaite. The Holy Boys. Jonathan Sutherland. Alan Gallop. Paradise of the Pacific. Susanna Moore. A Brief History of the British Army.
John Lewis-Stempel. Breverton's Nautical Curiosities. Terry Breverton. British Armoured Divisions and their Commanders, Richard Doherty. Undersea Warrior. Don Keith. Augustus Steward. The Discovery of a Northwest Passage. Sir Robert McClure. The Battle of the River Plate. Gordon Landsborough. The Voyages of Captain James Cook. James Cook. Eric Grove. Wellington's Army in the Peninsula — Stuart Reid.
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Tim Travers. Fighting the Great War at Sea. Norman Friedman. Historical Dictionary of Australian Aborigines. Mediterranean Fleet, Keyes Papers. Battle of the Otranto Straits. Naval War in the Mediterranean. The term came into disrepute in Britain during the Spanish Civil War and the Conservatives therefore used it to tarnish A D Lindsay's anti-appeasement coalition in the Oxford by-election. Cabinet Minister in charge of the Department of Trade, and with responsibility for issues affecting trade.
The principal Minister of the Government, with responsibility for chairing the Cabinet. Its building in Berlin was a symbol of parliamentary government in Germany, so that its destruction by fire in was a major psychological shock. This had been declared a demilitarized zone under the Treaty of Versailles , and Hitler's generals advised him against the move, as it might lead to war with France.
However, France would not take action without British support and the British refused to go to war over the incident, declaring that "Germany was only marching into its own back yard. British General. Chief of Staff in France, , Chief of the Imperial General Staff, responsible for co-ordinating the armed forces of Britain and the Empire. Robertson was a convinced "westerner" concentrating on the Western Front and a strong supporter of Field Marshal Haig. It was Robertson who took the decision to pull out of the disastrous Dardanelles campaign.
Robertson was out-manoeuvred by his political opponents, and replaced in February by Sir Henry Wilson. Robertson began his military career as a private in the ranks in , achieving promotion to officer rank as a Lieutenant in the 3rd Dragoon Guards, Robertson began the First World War as Quartermaster-General head of the department which provides soldiers' quarters of the British Expeditionary Force part of the Army available for service in Europe in , before becoming Chief of General Staff in renamed as Chief of Imperial General Staff, Robertson was finally promoted to Field-Marshal, , and is still the only man to rise to this rank from that of private.
Roosevelt also known as "FDR" won four presidential elections in a row and is the only American president to have served more than two terms. The war began as a dispute over control of Port Arthur in Korea, and developed into a major naval humiliation for Russia, especially after the crushing Japanese victory in the Battle of Tsushima. Cabinet Minister in charge of the Colonial Office, and with responsibility for issues affecting Britain's relations with her colonies and dominions.
Cabinet Minister responsible for dealing with members of the Commonwealth, Britain's former colonies. Merged with the position of Foreign Secretary in Cabinet Minister in charge of the War Office, and with responsibility for the army and military issues. A major British offensive against the German front line launched on 1st July, Enormous hopes were built up before the assault, which was to involve large numbers of those who had responded to Lord Kitchener's famous appeal for volunteers.
In the event, the attack was a disaster: German machine guns caused 60, British casualties on the first day alone, and the battle, which had been expected to last a matter of days, dragged on until the autumn. British gains were minimal, and even the use of tanks failed to break through the German lines. The battle has become a symbol of the failures of British generalship in the First World War.
The war lasted from July to April , increasing tensions throughout Europe, and featuring terrible atrocities on both sides. It ended in victory for the Nationalists, and a dictatorship which was to last until Franco's death in A massive, and initially very successful, German attack on the Allied lines. The Germans broke through the British lines and moved into open countryside behind the British trenches.
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For a time the British and French position was critical, but the Germans did not have the reserves to carry through their advances, and Allied resistance was stiffening as more American reinforcements began to arrive. The offensive was finally reversed in a major Allied counter-attack in August Attack on Egypt by Britain, France, and Israel in October , following Egypt's decision to nationalize the Suez canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and America to fund the building of the Aswan Dam.
Although militarily successful, Britain and France were forced to withdraw after financial and political pressure from the United States and United Nations. Elected Conservative MP for Finchley Prime Minister German naval secretary from , von Tirpitz persuaded both Kaiser Wilhelm II and the Reichstag to support his Navy Laws, which built up the small German High Seas fleet into a fleet capable of challenging Britain's hitherto undisputed naval supremacy. Peace treaty signed in which officially ended the First World War, after six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference.
Some of the treaty's main points required Germany to accept responsibility for causing the war, to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions and to pay large financial reparations to the Allies. This caused lasting resentment in Germany, right up until the Second World War, and the treaty was widely ignored by the mid's.
Muslim country with capital at Istanbul. Formerly the heart of the great Ottoman Empire, created by the Ottoman Turks. Istanbul was formerly called Constantinople. The British naval policy adopted in whereby the Royal Navy was to be maintained at a size at least equal to those of the next two largest fleets combined. At the time these were supposed to be fleets of France and Russia, but the policy was a major driving force behind Britain's reaction to German naval expansion in the years before see Tirpitz ; Navy League ; Navy Laws.
The policy was abandoned by Churchill as First Lord of the Admiralty in One of the major battles of the First World War. It began in February with a German attack on the French fortifications around the town of Verdun, and degenerated over the next nine months into a bitter trench battle which drained the French army of men.
Devastating financial crash on the Wall Street stock market in New York in October , which had a major impact on the American and world economy. Small group of senior Ministers and military chiefs responsible for overall strategy and policy in time of war. The battlefront in the First World War which, from late , ran in a single line of trenches from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
The British Expeditionary Force part of the Army available for service in Europe occupied the Belgian and northern French part of the front. The Western Front was characterised by static trench warfare, in contrast with the Eastern Front, where there was much more movement. Those political and particularly military figures who, in the First World War, advocated concentrating all Allied efforts on the Western Front, even to the point of ignoring other fronts altogether.
Trying to evict the Germans from the huge tract of northern France which they occupied in was a political as well as military imperative for the French, and Britain, as the junior ally, was obliged to support them. They were opposed by "easterners", including Lloyd George and Churchill.
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Foreign Office official who helped provide Winston Churchill with information on German rearmament. Wilhelm had a strong love-hate relationship with Britain, epitomised by his difficult relations with his British relatives he was first cousin to Britain's King George V. After sacking the German Chancellor, Prince Otto von Bismarck in he was increasingly taken up with ambitious policies to push Germany to international prominence and especially to challenge the position of Great Britain.
He supported the Boers in the Boer War and challenged the French and British in the Moroccan crisis, and again in the Agadir crisis, He enthusiastically supported Tirpitz's policy of naval expansion, though he adopted a more moderate tone when the war crisis of actually struck. He was not an inspiring war leader, and his reputation suffered badly from Germany's defeat in , when he was forced to abdicate and flee to exile in Holland.
Although German nationalists after often regretted the loss of the monarchy, neither they nor the Nazis particularly wanted him back, and he died in exile in Holland in Like his contemporary Admiral Fisher, Wilson was brought back to the Admiralty during the First World War after a career which had begun in the Victorian era.
Returned to the Admiralty without any formal post, October June Wilson was a keen advocate of working closely with the French, and although he sympathised with the "westerner" point of view concentrating on the Western Front , he was much more prepared than Sir Douglas Haig and Sir William Robertson to work alongside Lloyd George and the War Cabinet the group responsible for overall strategy and policy in time of war. In February he replaced Robertson as Chief of the Imperial General Staff responsible for co-ordinating the armed forces of Britain and the Empire.
In he was assassinated by the IRA. Wilson began his career practising law, but gave this up for academic life as a Professor of History and Political Economy at Bryn Mawr College, , Wesleyan University, , then as Professor of Jurisprudence and Politics, Princeton University, he was President of the University, In , taking another new turn, he was elected Democratic Governor of New Jersey.
In , however, provoked by German U-boat attacks on American shipping and by German anti-American intrigues in Mexico, he persuaded Congress the legislative body of the USA to declare war on Germany. He issued his famous Fourteen Points as a basis for a peace settlement in January , and it was in the expectation that the peace settlement would follow this framework that the Germans finally asked for an armistice in November of that year.
Wilson hoped that the Paris Peace settlement, including the Treaty of Versailles , which he helped to negotiate in , would be based upon national self-determination, but he was unable to impose his will on his allies, and the settlement was much harsher on Germany and her allies than Wilson had intended or expected.
He placed great hope in the idea of a League of Nations to settle international disputes peacefully, but he had underestimated the extent of opposition to the idea in the USA, where Congress voted not to ratify the Treaty and therefore not to join the League. Wilson's efforts to drum up popular support for the League broke his health, and he died an invalid in Belgian town, the centre of three major battles in the First World War, including the appalling slaughter of Passchendaele, and of fighting during the German spring offensive in The British trench line in front of Ypres formed a large salient or bulge extending into the German lines, which meant that British troops could be fired on from three sides, making it one of the most dangerous parts of the British sector of the Western Front.
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